Microbial natural products remain an important source of novel active compounds for use in human therapeutics, animal health, agritech and crop care . These are typically small molecules produced by microorganisms. The team at Isomerase are experts at working with microbial natural products produced by a wide range of microbes. Modern Natural Products discovery and development is aided by the use of modern biotechnology methods including genome editing and bioinformatics (for example genome sequencing and analysis) which are powerful tools enabling the discovery and development of a new generation of improved products.Microbial Natural Products

We are experienced at setting up and managing natural product discovery projects with novel isolated strains, strains from our own strain collection (>30,000 isolates), public strain collections or initiating research on partially or fully isolated microbial natural products. We are able to engineer microbes to produce higher titres of the target natural product, remove competing natural products or generate analogues with favourable properties. 

We have proprietary technologies that allow us to manipulate the biosynthetic pathways of these microbial natural products and individual enzymes to produce novel analogues and our areas of particular expertise include; sterols, ribosomal peptides , non-ribosomal peptides, sterols, polyketides and proteins.

Microbial natural products and classes

We have experience working with a wide variety of natural product biosynthetic pathways including:

  • Ribosomal peptides These include both Ribosomally-encoded Post translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) and those produced by our own proprietary system in E.coli or Pichia.
  • Non-ribosomal peptides – These peptides are produced by modular enzymatic systems and can include non-natural amino acids and N-methylation. Examples include vancomycin, indigoidine and epothilone. 
  • Proteins We have a range of technologies for the production of proteins (such as enzymes for biocatalysis) from a range of chassis strains, such as proprietary strains of E.coli, Pichia and Streptomyces.
  • Polyketides – These are usually produced by similar modular enzymatic systems to the non-ribosomal peptides and are related to fatty acid biosynthesis but with extensive ability to alter the levels of processing and substitution within each module. They can also be produced by iterative systems. Examples include rapamycin, erythromycin, rifamycin, avermectin, amphotericin and doxycycline.
  • Lipopeptides – These include natural products where a lipidic group is attached to a peptidic system, such as daptomycin and subtilisin.
  • Steroids and sterols – Steroids are derivatives of the triterpene squalene. Includes sterols such as cholesterol and ergosterol and the broader class of steroids.
  • Terpenes or terpenoids – include monoterpenes such as limonene or pinene, sesquiterpenes, such as farnesene and geosmin, diterpenes such as taxadiene (taxol precursor) and more complex terpenes such as triterpenes like squalene (precursor to steroids).
  • Glycosylated products – These include natural products where there are one or more glycosyl groups. Examples include erythromycin, where two glycosyl groups are joined to a cyclic polyketide, vancomycin, where glycosyl groups are joined to a cyclic peptide and aminoglycosides, which comprise amino-modified glycosides such as kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin. 

Natural products expertise

Microbial strains - We are skilled at working with both wild-type and genetically modified microbial strains producing a wide range of microbial natural products, including unicellular and filamentous fungi, and a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. See some examples of our strains.

Pathway engineering - We can also build and optimise biosynthetic pathways in industrial strains to make a new related natural product or more of an existing product of interest. We can then ferment and isolate material from these strains and supply these to the partner from milligram to kilogram quantities

Chemistry - Our expertise in handling these types of complex chemistry also makes us well-suited for handling other natural product systems and products of complex synthesis. We have managed totally synthetic programs for a number of collaborators, designing targets, carrying out quality control, analytical and isolation chemistry and project management.

Natural product discovery and sourcing

We have carried out many projects to access microbial natural products for partners from a variety of industrial sectors – including the production of compounds that are difficult to source or the isolation of novel natural products.

Example case studies are shown below:

  • Research and find potential natural product producers in strain and patent collections
  • Source known organisms from the Isomerase, public or patent culture collections
  • Find novel natural products using in-house bioinformatic  searches using public genomic data or directly sequence and analyse the biosynthetic potential of genomes of potential producer organisms or metagenomes.
  • Find similar natural product analogues through literature and bioinformatic searches
  • In-house bioinformatics methods to predict proteinspeptides and biosynthetic gene clusters
  • Synthetic biology and heterologous expression using in-house knowledge

Please contact us if you would like further information.

Why are microbial natural products important in modern drug discovery?

Natural products, especially microbial natural products, have made a critical contribution to drug discovery and development, especially in oncology and infectious diseases. In many cases, the direct products themselves have been developed as drugs, such as the case with morphine, erythromycin, streptomycin, rapamycin, doxorubicin, paclitaxel and many more. The natural products have been derivatised or altered structurally to produce drugs with improved properties (such as improved pharmacokinetics), such as clarithromycin (vs erythromycin), temsirolimus (vs rapamycin), docetaxel (vs paclitaxel). 

Most natural products have evolved to have properties suitable for binding targets in aqueous conditions. Drug discovery projects therefore often start with very potent lead molecules. However, they often have poor pharmacokinetics or other properties that need improving to make them suitable for development as drugs.

The impact of Natural Products on drug development has continued to be highly valuable – as summarised in reviews by Newman and Cragg (e.g. Newman and Cragg J. Nat. Prod. 2020, 83, 3, 770–803) which reveal that, for example, 53% of oncology drugs approved by the FDA between 1946-1980 were natural products or natural product derived. Since 1980, this number reduced to a still highly important 34%, although when synthetically produced products which were inspired by natural product structures are also included, this number increases to 65%.

Examples of microbial natural products

Microbial Natural Products are a class of natural products produced by various fermentable organisms.

Below is a non-exhaustive list of examples potentially suitable for Isomerase's bioengineering , chemistry and fermentation technologies. Please get in touch if you would like to get support with your natural products project or optimize your natural product hit using biosynthetic medicinal chemistry.


Microbial Natural Products

Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action

A40926 Antibiotic
A47934 Antibiotic
A-500359 Antibiotic
A-503083 Inhibitor Of Bacterial Translocase I
A54145 Antibiotic
A-74528 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor
Aborycin Antibiotic
Aburatubolactam A Inhibitor Of Superoxide Anion Generation
Abyssomicin I Antibacterial Through Inhibiting The Enzyme Pabb (4-Amino-4-Deoxychorismate Synthase)
Acarbose Antidiabetic
Acetomycin Antibiotic
Acinetobactin Siderophore
Aclarubicin Topoisomerase I/II Inhibitor
Actagardine Antibacterial
Acticin 3147 Antibiotic
Actinomycin Transcription Inhibitor
Actinopyrone A Infectious Disease (Helicobacter) 
Actinorhodin Antibacterial
Actinotetraose Hexatiglate (Tigloside)  
Aculeximycin Antibiotic (Gram Positive And Negative Bacteria), Larvicidal
Adriamycin Dna Intercalating Agent, Dna Topoisomerase 2-Alpha Inhibitor (Cytotoxic)
Aerucyclamide A  
Aeruginoside Thrombin Inhibitor
Aeruginosin Serine Protease Inhibitor
Aflastatin A  
Aflatoxin Toxin
Agardhipeptin A  
Ah 758 Antibiotic (Active Againts Herpes Virus)
Ajudazol Antifungal, Mitochondrial Respiraotry Chain Inhibitor
Albicidin DNA Gyrase Inhibitor
Albocycline Prolyl Endopeptidase (Infectious Disase (Antiviral, Insecticidal), Inhibitor Of Nicotinate Biosynthesis
Albomycin Antibacterial
Alchivemycin A Antibacterial, Antitumour
Aldgamycin Antimicrobial
Altamycin PDGFR Inhibitor
Alteramide A Antifungal, Microtubule Binding
Althiomycin Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic
Ambruticin Activating Fungal High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) Pathway; Putative Proteasome Inhibitor
Ammocidin Apopotosis Induction In Ras-Dependent Cells 
Amphomycin Antibacterial
Amphotericin Sterols (Antifungal)
Amycomycin Antibiotic 
Amythiamicin A  
Anabaenopeptilide Serine Protease Inhibitors
Anabaenopeptin Inhibitor Of Carboxypeptidase TAFIa.
Anachelin Antibiotic
Anantin Antagonist Of Atrial Natriuretic Factor
Angiolam A  
Angolamycin Antibiotic
Angolosaminyl Tylactone Bacterial Ribosome
Angucycline Cytostatic (Oncology)
Anguibactin Siderophore
Anguinomycin A CRM1, Exportin1
Ansamitocin P3 Tubulin (Oncology)
Ansatrienin Antibiotic And Antifungal
Ansatrienin A GRP78 (Oncology)
Antascomicin B FKBP inhibitor
Anthramycin Antitumour And Antibiotic
Antibiotic 3874H1 Antibiotic
Antibiotic 67-121A Antibiotic
Antibiotic A 10255E  
Antibiotic A 10255J  
Antibiotic A 82548A Antibiotic
Antibiotic A 83016F Putative Binder Of EF-Tu
Antibiotic A130C Antibiotic
Antibiotic A-23187 Inhibits Mitochondrial ATPase Activity
Antibiotic A59770A Antibiotic
Antibiotic A73A Antibiotic
Antibiotic Ab 023A Antibiotic
Antibiotic Ac 326 Alpha Antibiotic
Antibiotic An 023B Antibiotic
Antibiotic Cp 91243 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Fr 252921 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Fr 252922 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Fr 256523 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Ge 37468A  
Antibiotic HA-1-92 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Ib 96212 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Ikd 8344 Antibiotic
Antibiotic K41 Antibiotic
Antibiotic L 681,217 EF-Tu Inhibitor
Antibiotic Ll Z1640-2 TAK1
Antibiotic RK-682 Inhibits Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases And Heparanase
Antibiotic S 541 Antibiotic
Antibiotic S 632C Antibiotic
Antibiotic Sch 18640  
Antibiotic Sch 38518 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Ss49 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Ta Inhibits Type II Signal Peptidase
Antibiotic TAN 420C Hsp90 Inhibitor
Antibiotic TAN 420E Hsp90 Inhibitor
Antibiotic TP 1161  
Antibiotic TPU-0037-A Antibiotic
Antibiotic TPU-0037-C Antibiotic
Antibiotic U 56407 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Ucf 116A Ras Farnesyl Tranferase (Oncology)
Antibiotic UCN-01 PKC, CDK2
Antibiotic Uk-1 Antibiotic
Antibiotic Vm 44866 Antibiotic
Antibiotic X 14931A Antibiotic
Antibiotic X 14952B Inhibitor Of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Complex
Antibiotic X206 Antibiotic
Antimycin Respiratory Chain Inhibitor
Apicidin HDAC inhibitor
Apicularen V-ATPase (Oncology)
Aplysiatoxin Protein Kinase C Activation
Apoptolidin F0F1-ATPase Inhibition (Oncology)
Apratoxin A Antineoplastic - Arrests Cell Cycle
Aranciamycin Antimicrobial
Archazolid V-ATPase (Oncology)
Arimetamycin Antineoplastic
Arthrofactin Biosurfactant 
Arthrospiramide A  
Ascochlorin MMP-9 Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibits MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway
Ascomycin Calcineurin Inhibitor
Asukamycin A1 Antimicrobial And Potential Antitumor
Aurafuron Cytotoxic
Aurantimycin A Antibacterial And Cytotoxic
Aurenin Antibiotic
Aureothin Oxidoreductase Inhibition.
Auricin Antibiotic
Aurodox (Delvomycin, Mocimycin) EF-Tu Inhibitor (Bacterial Protein Synthesis)
Avermectin (Ivermectin, Abamectin) Glutamate-Gated Chlorine Channel Binder, Insecticide
Avilamycin Antibiotic (Poultry Use)
Avilamycin A Inhibits Bacterial Protein Synthesis
Axinellin C  
Azalomycin Antifungal Through Cytosolic Phospholipase A2
Azdimycin Antibiotic
Azinomycin Antitumor 
Azithromycin Antibiotic
Azonomycin B Oncology
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Bacillaene Gram Negative Antibiotic
Bacillibactin Siderophore
Bacillomycin Antifungal Antibiotic
Bacitracin Topical Antibiotic Against Gram positive Bacteria, Disrupts Cell Synthesis
Bacteriocin J46  
Bacteriocin Uberolysin  
Bafilomycin  V-ATPase  (Oncology)
Balhimycin Antibiotic
Banyascyclamide A  
Barbamide Molluscicidal Agent
Batumin Antistaphylococcal
BE-14106 Antifungal,  Hes1 Inhibitor
Beauvericin Specific Inhibitor Of Cholesterol Acyltransferase
Berninamycin FoxM1 inhibitor
Beta-Rubromycin HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase
BI-32169 Antagonist Of Glucagon Receptor
Bialaphos Herbicide
Bikaverin Pigment With Antibiotic Properties
Bischloroanthrabenzoxocinone Type II Fas Inhibitor
Bistratamide A  
Blasticidin A Antibiotic
Blasticidin S Disruption Of Ribosomal Activity
Bleomycin Inhibits DNA Synthesis (Oncology)
Bongkrekic Acid Adenine Nucleotide Translocase, mPTP 
Boromycin Antiviral, Bacteriocidal
Borrelidin (Treponemycin) Spliceosome, tRNA Synthetase (Oncology)
Bottromycin Antibiotic
Bovicin Hj50  
Branimycin Antibiotic
Brasinolide A Plant-Growth Promoting
Bryostatin  PKC Pathway (Oncology)
Bundlin A Antimicrobial
Butyrivibriocin Ar10  
Butyrivibriocin Or79  
Butyrolactol A Antifungal
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
C-1027 Antitumor Antibiotic, Antiangiogenic
Caerulomycin Antibiotic
Calcimycin Calcium Ionophore
Calcium Ionophore A23187 Inhibits Mitochondrial ATPase Activity
Calicheamicin DNA (Oncology)
Calphostin C PKC Inhibitor (Oncology)
Calyculin A Protein Phosphatase 1, Protein Phosphatase 2A 
Candicidin Antifungal
Capistruin Rna Polymerase Inhibitor
Capreomycin Antibiotic
Carbomycin Antibacterial
Carnocyclin A  
Carnolysin A1  
Carriomycin Antibiotic
Cationomycin Ionophore
Caulonodin I  
CDA (Calcium-Dependent Antibiotic) Antibiotic
Cephalosporin Antibacterial
Cephamycin-C Antibiotic
Cercosporin Photoactivated Plant Toxin
Cereulide Toxin
Chalcomycin Protein Synthesis Inhibitor (Antibacterial)
Chartreusin Topoisomerase
Chivosazol Antifungal
Chivosazole Actin (Oncology)
Chloramphenicol Antibiotic
Chlorobiocin Antibacterial
Chloroeremomycin (Oritavancin) Antibacterial, Antitumour
Chlorothricin Grp78 Pathway, Malate Dehydrogenase
Chlortetracycline Hcl Antibacterial -  Bacterial Ribosome
Chondramide Oncology (Disrupts Actin Cytoskeleton)
Chondrochloren Antibiotic
Chrolactomycin Antitumor
Chromomycin A3 Sp1 (HIV-1)
Chrysomycin A Topoisomerase
Circularin A  
Citrinin Carcinogenic Mycotoxin
Clarithromycin Antibiotic
Clavulanic Acid Antibacterial
Clethramycin Antifungal, Inhibitor Of Pollen Tube Growth
Cochlioquinone B CCR5 (HIV-1) Inhibitor Of NADH-Ubiquinone Reductase
Coibacin Antileishmanial
Colibactin Genotoxin
Collismycin A Iron Chelator
Comoramide A  
Compactin Cardiovascular Applications
Complestatin C4B,2B Complex and Gp120-CD4
Concanamycin V-ATPase (Oncology)
Conglobatin NFAT Pathway  (Oncology)
Copiamycin Antifungal
Coronafacic Acid Phytotoxin
Coronatine Phytotoxin
Coumermycin Antibacterial
Cp-60993 Ionophore
Crisamicin A Antibiotic
Crocacin Electron Transport Inhibitor
Crocain Antibiotic
Cryptophycin A Tubulin (Oncology)
Curacin Cytotoxic (Antiproliferative)
Curacin A Cytotoxic (Antiproliferative)
Curromycin A GRP78
Curromycin B Antiviral (HIV)
Curvularin Disrupts Mitotic Spindle (Oncology)
Cyanopeptolin Chymotrypsin Inhibitor
Cyanothecamide A  
Cycloheximide Interact With Colchicine Binding Sites On Tubulin, Antiproliferative
Cyclosporin, Cyclosporine A Immunosuppressant
Cyclostreptin Tubulin (Oncology)
Cylindrocyclophane 20S Proteasome
Cylindrospermopsin Protein Synthesis Inhibitor
Cymbimicin A Cyclophilin
Cypemycin Antibiotic
Cystobactamids Topoisomerase Inhibitor
Cystomanamide HIV-1 Inhibition, Antifungal
Cystothiazole Antibiotic
Cystothiazolea Antibiotic
Cytolysin LL  
Cytolysin LS  
Cytotrienin A Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A (eEF1A)
Cytovaricin Antibiotic
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Dalbavancin Antibacterial
Daptomycin Antibacterial
Daunorubicin.Hcl Antitumor
D-Cycloserine Anti-Tubercular
Decatromicin B Antibiotic
Delactonmycin Antiviral, HIV rev Protein
Dendroamide A  
Dermostatin Antibiotic
Desertomycin Antibiotic
Desotamide Bacterial RNA Polymerase
Dhanyabadomycin Antifungal
Dianemycin Antibiotic, Ionophore And Uncoupler
Difficidin Broad Spectrum Antibiotic
Dilactonmycin HIV rev Inhibitor (Antiviral)
Dinactin T-Cell Proliferation
Disorazol Antifungal
Disorazole Antitumor (Antimitotic)
Dolastatin E  
Dolastatin I  
Dothistromin Broad-Spectrum Mycotoxin
Doxorubicin Topoisomerase II, Bacterial Ribosome
Doxycycline Hycalate Topoisomerase II, Bacterial Ribosome
Dunaimycin C1 Immunosuppressive
Duramycin Phosphatidylethanolamine Binder
Dynemicin Intercalating Into The Minor Groove Of B-DNA Helix
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Ebelactone Pancreatic Lipase, Esterase
Ebelactone A Inhibitor Of Extracellular Cathepsin A-Type Enzyme
Echinocandin Antifungal
Echinomycin Blocking The Binding If HIF1Alpha
Efrotomycin Antibiotic
Elaiophylin Inhibitor Of NO Synthesis
Elansolid Activity Against Gram-Positive Bacteria.
Elasnin Elastase Inhibitor
Ellaiophylin NO Synthesis  (Immunomodulator, Antihelminthic )
Elloramycin Antimicrobial
Elmycin B Antibiotic
EM574 Motilin Receptor Agonist
Enduracidin Antibiotic
Enduracidin (Enramycin) Inhibitor Of MurA (Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitor)
Endusamycin Antibiotic
Enniatin Anti-HIV (Ionophore)
Enterobactin Siderophore
Enterocin Antibiotic
Enterocin AS-48  
Enterocin NKR-5-3D  
Epicidin 280  
Epilancin 15X  
Epilancin K7  
Epothilone Tubulin Stabilization/Dynamics
Equisetin HIV-1 Integrase
Erdacin Antibacterial
Ergometrine Cardiovascular
Ergovaline Toxin
Ericin A  
Erythreapeptin 7  
Erythromycin Antibacterial (Bacterial Ribosome)
Erythronolide B Antibiotic
Esperamicin DNA Splicing, Antitumour
Etheromycin Antibiotic
Exochelin Ferric Chelating Substance
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Factumycin Type III Secretion System Inhibitor
FD-594, FD594 Antitumour
FD-891, FD891 Triggers Caspase-8-Dependent Mitochondrial Release Of Cytochrome C And Subsequent Apoptosis
Fengycin Antifungal
Fidaxomicin Bacterial RNA Polymerase.
Filipin EGF-R Inhibitor 
Fischerellin Photosystem-Ii-Inhibiting Allelochemical, Antifungal, Herbicidal
Fk228 HDAC1/HDAC2 Inhibitor
FK506, FK-506 (Tacrolimus) Immunosuppressive, FKBPs, Calcineurin
FK520, FK520 FKBPs, Calcineurin, Ca Stem Cell Inhibitor
Flavofungin I Antifungal
Fluviricin Antiviral 
Fostriecin PP2A, Topoisomerase
Fr-008 Antifungal
Fredericamycin  Pin1 (Oncology)
Friulimicin Antibiotic
Fumitremorgin Tremorogene
Fumonisin Ceramide Synthase Inhibitor
Fungichromin (Pentamycin) Antifungal
Fusaricidin Antibiotic And Antifungal
Fusarin Antimitotic Mycotoxin
Fusidic Acid Antibacterial
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Garvicin Ml  
Gassericin A  
Ge 2270  
Geldanamycin Oncology Hsp90
Geninthiocin Inhibits FoxM1
Gentamicin Antibacterial
Geobacillin I  
Gephyronic Acid Antifungal, Inhibitor Of Processing Bodies Assembly
Gilvocarcin M Inhibitor Of Human Topoisomerase II
Gliotoxin Immunosuppressive Virulence Factor Of Aspergillus; Inhibitor Of Farnesyl Transferase
Glycocin F Antimicrobial
Goadsporin Bacterial Hormone
Gramicidin Antibacterial, Uncoupler (Mitochondrial)
Granaticin Inhibition Of Ribosomal RNA Maturation 
Grisorixin Ionophore
Guadinomine Anti-Infective Compound
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Haliclonamide A  
Haloduracin Hal Alpha  
Haloduricin Antibiotic
Halomicin A Antibiotic
Halstoctacosanolide Antibiotic
HC Toxin Antimitogenic
Hectochlorin Hectochlorin
Herbimycin Hsp90. Inhibits Protein Tyrosine Kinase And Angiogensis.
Herboxidiene Sf3B Protein Binder, Spliceosome Inhibitor, Antitumour
Heronamide A  
Hexacyclinic Acid  
Homodolastatin 3  
Homooligomycin A Cytotoxic
Hormaomycin Bacterial Hormone, Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotic.
Humidimycin Mdn-0010  
Hydroxyl-Maltophilin Antifungal
Hygrolidin Crop Protection, Cell Cycle Arrest
Hygromycin Antibacterial
Hymeglusin HMG-CoA Synthase Inhibitor
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Idanomycin Antiparasitic, Insecticidal, And Antibacterial
Idarubicin Topoisomerase II, Bacterial Ribosome
Ikarugamycin Inhibits Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis
Indanomycin Ionophore
Indigoidine Antibiotic, Dye
Integramycin HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor
Ionomycin Induces PKC, Ca Ionophore 
Iromycin Selective eNOS Inhibitor
Irumamycin Antifungal
IS 83  
Isoapoptolidin F0F1-ATPase
Isoheinicomycin Angiogenesis And Migration/Metastasis Inhibition
Iso-Migrastatin Antineoplastic
Iturin Pore-Former (Antibacterial)
Ivermectin Nematocidal
Jamaicamide A Neurotoxin
Jerangolid Antifungal
Josamycin Antibacterial (Inhibits Translocation Of Peptidyl tRNA)
K252c Protein Kinase C
Kaimonolide B Herbicide
Kamonolide Plant Growth
Kanamycin (Amikacin) Antibacterial
Kanchanamycin Antibiotic
Kawaguchipeptin A  
Kazusamycin Nuclear Export Inhibitor
Kedarcidin DNA (Oncology)
Kendomycin Proteasome Inhibitor
Kigamicin C Blocking Act Pathways
Kijanimicin Grp78 Pathway
Kirromycin (Delvomycin, Mocimycin) Antibiotic EF-Tu
Kirrothricin Antibiotic
Kutzneride Antifungal And Antimicrobial
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Labilomycin Antibiotic
Labyrinthopeptin Antiallodynic Activity
Lacticin 3147 A1  
Lacticin 481  
Lactimidomycin Angiogenesis And Migration/Metastasis Inhibition
Lactocin S  
Lactocyclicin Q  
Lactomycin Antifungal
Lactoquinomycin AKT/PKB Inhibitor
Laidlomycin Antibiotic, Ionophore
Lajollamycin Antibiotic
Lambdamycin Topoisomerase
Langkolide Phosphodiesterase PDE4  (Antibiotic)
Lankacidin Antitumour, Antimicrobial
Lankacyclinol Antibiotic
Lankamycin Antibacterial 
Lanthionine Containing Peptide  
Lariatin Anti-Mycobacterial
Lariatin A  
Lasalocid Ionophore, Antibiotic / Coccidiostat
Lavendofuseomycin Antibiotic
Leinamycin Antitumour, Antibiotic, DNA Synthesis Inhibitor
Leiodermatolide Potent Cytotoxic And Antimitotic
Leptomycin CREM-1/Exportin 1 - Nuclear Protein Transport
Leucanicidin Insecticidal, Potent Nematocidal
Leucasandrolide A Antitumor
Leucocyclicin Q  
Leucomycin A1 Animal Health Product (Antimicrobial)
Leucomycin V (Kitasamycin) Antibiotic
Leustroducsin A Inhibits T-Cell Proliferation
Leustroducsin B NF-KB Stimulator
Leustroducsin C Antibacterial, Antitumour, Antifungal
Lichenicidin A1  
Lichenysin Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial, And Hemolytic, Surfactant
Lienomycin Antibiotic
Lincomycin (Clindamycin) Antibacterial
Lipiarmycin (Fidaxomycin) RNA Polymerase Inhibitor, Antibiotic
Lipomycin Potent Gram Positive Antibacterial Activity Without Fungicidal Activity
Liposidolide A Antifungal
Liposidomycin Inhibitor Of Bacterial Peptidoglycan Synthesis
Lipstatin (Xenical) Antiobesity
Lissoclinamide 1  
Lonomycin Ionophore 
Lovastatin Cardiovascular Applications
Lugdunin Antibacterial
Luisol A Antibiotic
Luteoreticulin Antibiotic
Lydicamycin Antibiotic
Lymphostin Immunosuppressant
Lyngbyatoxin Blister Agent, Carcinogen, Toxin
Lysolipin Antibacterial, Glycopeptide Synthesis Inhibitor
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Macbecin I Hsp90 Inhibitor
Maclafungin Antifungal
Macrolactin FabG Inhibitor, Antimicronbial
Macrolactin A Anti-Angiogenic
Macrolactin N Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor
Macrolactin S Fabg Inhibitor, Antibacterial
Maduramycin Ionophore, Anticryptosporidial
Maduropeptin DNA Binder (Oncology)
Magnamycin (Carbomycin) Antibiotic
Malolactomycin MMP-1, MMP-9, Ras Signalling (Oncology)
Mannopeptimycins Antibiotic
Manoalide PLA2
Manumycin Farnesyltransferase, STAT3, Ras Pathway  (Oncology)
Manumycin A Farnesyltransferase (Ras Pathway), STAT3, Telomerase, By Elevating ROS
Marcfortine A Nematocidal Activity
Massetolide Crop Protection
Mathemycin A Antifungal
Mechercharstatin A  
Mechercharstatin B  
Medermycin Inhibitor Of Platelet Aggregation
Mediomycin A Antibiotic
Mediomycin B Antibiotic
Megalomycin Protein Synthesis Inhibitor, Antibiotic
Meilingmycin Anthelmintic
Meilingmycin D Antibiotic
Melithiazol Electron Transport Chain Inhibitor
Mensacarcin Antitumor
Mepartricin Estrogen Reabsorption Inhibitor
Meridamycin FKBPs, Calcineurin, Ca Stem Cell Inhibitor
Methylpendomycin Antibiotic
Methylsulfomycin I  
Methylstreptimidone Oncology, NF-Κb
Methymycin Neutrophil Mediated Inflammation
Microbisporicin B  
Microcin B17 DNA Gyrase Inhibitor (Antibiotic)
Microcin J25 Integrin Antagonist (Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis, Crohn'S Disease, Psoriasis, Rheumatoid Arthritis And Acute Coronary Syndromes)
Microcins B17 Antibacterial, Gyrase Inhibitor
Micrococcin P1 Prokaryotic 50S Ribosomal Subunit
Microcyclamide Cytotoxic
Microcystin PP1 And PP2A Inhibitor
Microginin Leucin Aminopeptidase Inhibitor
Micropeptin Plasmin And Trypsin Inhibitor
Microphycin Al828  
Microviridin A  
Midecamycin 50S Subunit Of Ribosome Inhibitor
Migrastatin Angiogenesis And Migration/Metastasis Inhib.
Milbemycin Cl-Gated Ion Channels
Minocycline NF-Kb, PKC   MHCII
Mithramycin A Antitumour c-myc Pathway, Collagen-1 Gene Expression, Activates Fas Death Pathway
Mitomycin C DNA synthesis inhibitor
Mj 347 81F4 A  
Ml-449 Antimicrobial, Antifungal
Mm47755 Antibacterial And Antifungal
Moenomycin Antibacterial
Monactin Inhibits T-Cell Proliferation
Monazomycin Antibiotic, Channel Former
Monensin Ionophore, Antibiotic
Monensin A Trans Golgi-Protein Transport Inhib. Ionophoric
Monocillin II Antitumour, Inhibiting MAPK Pathways And CDK2 Phosphorylation
Mupirocin Antibacterial
Muscoride A  
Mutacin 1140  
Mutacin H-29B  
Mutacin I  
Mutalomycin Antibiotic
Mycinamycin Antibiotic
Mycobactin Siderophore
Mycochelin A  
Mycolactone Toxin Responsible For Buruli Ulcers
Mycophenolic Acid Immunomodulator
Mycosubtilin Antifungal And Hemolytic
Mycotrienol I  
Myriocin Serine Palmitoyltransferase
Myxalamid Inhibit Nadh Oxidation At Complex I
Myxalamide Potent Inhibitor Of Mitochondrial Complex I
Myxochromide Antibacterial
Myxothiazol Respiratory Chain Inhibitor
Myxothiazole A Cytochrome bc1 Inhibitor
Myxovirescin A Type II Signal Peptidase Inhibitor, Antimicrobial
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Nairaiamide A  
Nanchangmycin Antiviral Active Against Zika Virus
Naphthomycin A Antineoplastic (DNA And RNA Synthesis Inhibitor)
Naphthomycin B GRP78
Naphtomycin Antibiotic
Naphtopyrone Glucosidase Inhibitor
Napsamycin Inhibitors Of Bacterial Translocase I
Napthomycin Antibacterial
Napyradiomycin Inhibitor Of Mitochondrial Complexes I And II
Narasin Coccidiostat (Antibiotic)
Narbomycin Protein Synthesis Inhibitor, Antibiotic
Nargenicin DneE Targetting Antimicrobial, Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta, Antibiotic
Nargenicin A1 Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor
Nargenicin B1 NF-KB Inhibitor
Natamycin (Pimaricin)  
Nemadectin Antihelmintic
Neoantimycin GRP78 Transcription Inhibitor
Neoaureothin Anti-HIV And Antifungal Activity
Neocarzinostatin DNA (Oncology)
Neomethymycin Antibiotic
Neomycin Antibacterial
Netropsin Antitumor
Nfat-133 Inhibit The Activation Of The Transcription Factor - NFAT In Jurkat Cells
Niddamycin Binds To 50S Ribosomal Subunits To Inhibit Protein Synthesis
Nigericin Ionophore, Stem Cells, Antibiotic
Nikkomycin Antifungal
Niphimycin Antifungal
Nisin Food Preservative
Nocardamine Tetracycline Efflux Pump Inhibitor
Nodularin Cyanotoxin
Nodusmicin Antibiotic
Nogalamycin Topoisomerase I
Nonactin Ionophore Antibiotic
Nosiheptide Prokaryotic 50S Ribosomal Subunit
Nostocyclamide M  
Nostocyclopeptide Inhibits Hepatocyte Drug Transporters OATP1B3 And OATP1B1
Notonesomycin Antibiotic
Novobiocin GyrB
Nukacin Isk-1  
Nystatin Forms Membrane Pores
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Oasomycin A Antibiotic
Obscurolide A1 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor
Okilactomycin Antibiotic
Oleandomycin Inhibitor Of Protein Biosynthesis
Oleficin Ionophore
Oligomycin V-ATPase (Oncology)
Oligomycin A F0F1-ATPase
Oligomycin B F0F1-ATPase
Omomycin Antibiotic
Onnamide Cytotoxic, Antiviral
Oocydin Anti-Oomycete (Crop Protection)
Ophiobolin A Inhibits Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Phosphodiesterase
Orevactaene HIV-1 Rev Inhibitor
Ossamycin ( Antibiotic B 61,893) Antitumor
Ostreogrycin A Inhibits Peptidyl tRNA
Oxazolomycin Antiviral
Oxyhygrolidin V-ATPase (Oncology)
Oxytetracycline Antibacterial
Pacidamycin Translocase MraY, Blocks Bacterial Cell Wall Assembly
Pacidamycin 3 Antibiotic
Paclitaxel Tubulin
Paebacillibactin Siderophore
Paenibactin Siderophore
Paenicidin A  
Paraherquamide A Anthelmintic (Inhibits Motility)
Partricin Antifungal
Patellamide A Antineoplastic
Patellin 1  
Pederin Toxin, Insect Secretion, Putative Translation Inhibitor
Pellasoren Antitumor 
Penicillin Antibacterial
Perimycin Antibiotic
Pestalotin Gibberellin Synergist And Plant Growth Stimulator
Phakellistatin 1  
Phenelfamycin Antibiotic
Phillipin (Filipin) Antifungal
Phoslactomycin Protein Phosphatase Iia Inhibitor
Phoslactomycin A PP2A
Phosphinothricin Broad-Spectrum Herbicide
Phosphomycin Antibacterial
Picromycin Neutrophil Mediated Inflammation
Piericidin NADPH-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Oncology)
Piericidin (Shaoguamycin) NADPH-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Oncology)
Pikromycin Prolyl Endopeptidase Inhibitor
Pimaricin (Natamycin) Ergosterol Binder: Transport Inhibitor; Antifungal
Piricyclamide 7005 E2  
Piricyclamide 7005 E3  
Piricyclamide 7005 E4  
Pironetin Actin (Oncology)
Pladienolide Spliceosome - SF3B
Plantaricin C  
PlantaricinW Alpha  
Plantazolicin Antibiotic, Target Unknown
Plantazolicin A  
Platenomycin B2 Antibiotic
Platensimycin FabF Inhibitor
Pleuromutalin Antibacterial
Pneumocandin Antifungal
Polyketomycin Antibacterial, Antitumor, And Antimalarial
Polymyxin (Colistin) Antibiotic (Disrupts Membrane)
Polyoxin Antifungal
Polytheonamide A Cytotoxic
Pradimicin Terminal D-Mannosides Of The Cell Wall And Cell Wall Disruption
Pradimycin A Anti-HIV
Pre-Borrelidin Threonyl tRNA-Synthetase
Prelissoclinamide 2  
Pre-Macbecin Hsp90 Inhibitor
Prenylagaramide A  
Prepatellamide A  
Primycin A1 Antibiotic
Pristinamycin Antibiotic
Prodigiosin BCL2
Propeptin Prolyl Endopeptidase Inhibitor
Pseudomonic Acid Isoleucyl tRNA Synthetase
Psymberin Cytotoxin, Antitumour
Putisolvin II Inhibits Biofilm Formation
Pyochelin Siderophore
Pyoluteorin Antifungal
Pyoverdin Cytotoxic
Pyoverdine Siderophore
Pyrrolosporin A Antitumour Antibiotic
Quartromicin HIV-1 Inhibitor
Quinaldopeptin Antimicrobial And Cytotoxic, DNA Intercalator
Quinomycin A HIF-1
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
R1128 Estrogen-Receptor Antagonists
Radicicol Hsp90; Protein Tyrosine Kinase (Oncology)
Ramoplanin Antibacterial
Raocyclamide A  
Raocyclamide B  
Rapamycin (Sirolimus) mTOR, FKBPs  ( Immunosuppression, Oncology)
Ratjadone CRM1
Rebeccamycin Antitumor, Topoisomerase I And II
RES-701-1 Antagonists Of The Type B Receptor Of Endothelin
Resistoflavine Cytotoxic
Resistomycin RNA Polymerase
Reticulol Topoisomerase
Reutericyclin Ionophore, Bacteriostatic
Reveromycin Antiosteoclastic/Osteporosis, G1 Phase Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase
Rhamnose Tylactone Bacterial Ribosome
Rhizopodin Actin (Oncology)
Rhizoxin Tubulin (Oncology)
Rifampicin Bacterial RNA Polymerase.
Rifaximin Bacterial RNA Polymerase.
Rimocidin Antifungal
Ristocetin Antibacterial
Rk-1009 (Factumycin)  Protein Biosynthesis Inhibitor
Rk-682 Inhibitor Of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase
Roflamycoin Antifungal
Rosamicin Bacterial Ribosome
Rosamycin Antibiotic (Bacterial Ribosome)
Roxaticin Antifungal
Rubiginone D2 Antibiotic, Antitumour
Rubradirin Ribosomal Polypeptide Biosynthesis Inhibitor
Ruminococcin A  
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Saccharocarcin Antimicrobial, GRP78 Transcription Inhibitor
Safracin Antibiotic
Safracin B Antitumor
Saframycin A Rna Synthesis Inhibitor
Salinilactam Antifungal
Salinomycin Coccidiostat, Ionophore Antibacterial 
Salivaricin 9  
Salivaricin A  
Sanglifehrin Cyclophilins (Antiviral)
Saxitoxin Shellfish Toxin
Sch 38519 Platelet Aggregation Inhibior
Sch 725674 Antifungal
Semduramycin Anticoccidal
Septamycin Ionophore, Anticoccidal Antibiotic
Sf2487 Influenza
Sf2575 Anticancer
Siamycin Anti-HIV
Sibiromycin Transcription Factor Inhibition
Simocyclinone D8 Gyrase Inhibitor, Protein Kinase Inhibitor, Antibiotic
Sinefungin Antifungal
Siomycin A Forkhead Box M1(FoxM1) Inhibitor
Smb A  
Smb B  
Soraphen Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase Inhibitor (ACC)
Spectinomycin Antibacterial
Sphingonodin I  
Sphingonodin II  
Sphingopyxin II  
Spinosad Insecticide
Spinosyn Insecticidal, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Activators (NAChRs)
Spiramycin Antibacterial, Bacterial Ribosome. Antibacterial, Antiprotozoal
Spirangien A Antimitotic
Spliceostatin Spliceosome
Sporulation Killing Factor  
Spumigin A Thrombin Inhibitor
SSV-2083 Inhibition Of fsr Quorum Sensing In Enterococcus faecalis
Stachybotrylactam Weakly Inhibits HIV-1 Protease
Stambomycin Anticancer
Staphylococcin C55 Alpha  
Staphylococcin C55 Beta  
Stauprimide PKC, NME2 (PUF)
Staurosporine (Staurosporin) OKC, Tyrosine Kinase, CDK2/Cyclin A, CDK4/Cyclin D, IKKa And IKKb (Oncology)
Steffimycin B Preferentially Active Against ras Oncogene-Expressed Cell
Sterigmatocystin Toxin
Stigmatellin Electron Transport Chain Inhibitor
Streptococcin A-Ff22  
Streptococcin A-M49  
Streptolydigin Inhibitor Of RNA Polymerase
Streptolysin S Hemolytic
Streptomycin Anti-Tubercular
Streptothricin Antibacterial
Streptozotocin Inhibition Of Beta-Cell O-GlcNAcase, Antitumour
Strevertene Antifungal
Stylisin 1  
Stylissamide A  
Sublancin 168 Antimicrobial
Sultriecin PP2A
Surfactin Surfactant
Syanodin I  
Syringomycin Surfactant, Pore Former
Syringopeptin Antimicrobial
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Tallysomycin Antitumor
Tan-1323 D V-ATPase
Taromycin A Antibiotic
Tautomycetin  PP1, PP2A (Oncology)
Tautomycin  PP1, PP2A
Tawicyclamide A  
Tawicyclamide B  
Teicoplanin Antibacterial
Teixobactin Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibition (Antibacterial)
Telomycin Antimicrobial
Tenellin Iron Chelator
Tenuecyclamide A  
Tetracenomycin C Antitumor
Tetracycline Antibacterial
Tetrocarcin Bcl-2 Inhibitor, Antitumour
Tetrocarcin A Bcl-2 Inhibitor, Antitumour
Tetromycin Phosphatidylinositide-3'-Kinase/Akt Signalling Pathway
Tetromycin A Phosphatidylinositide-3'-Kinase/Akt Signalling Pathway
Tetromycin C Aglycone Derivative  
Tetronasin Ionophore 
Tetronomycin Antibiotic
Thaxtomin Herbicide
Thermolide Nematocidal
Thiazinotrienomycin A Cytotoxic
Thienamycin Antibacterial
Thiocoraline DNA Replication Inhibitor, Antitumour
Thiomuracin A EF-Tu Inhibitor
Thioplabin G  
Thioplabin J  
Thiostrepton Antibacterial (Prokaryotic 50S Ribosomal Subunit)
Thiostrepton A  
Thiostrepton A2  
Thuggacin A Antibiotic
Thurandacin A  
Thurandacin B  
Thuricin C  
Thuricin D  
Thurincin H  
Tirandamycin Antibiotic, Antiuberculosis
Tirandamycin 3 Antibiotic, Antiuberculosis
Tmc 135A Antitumor
Tmc 135B Antitumor
Tobramycin Antibacterial
Tolypomycin Y Antimycobacterial Antibiotic
Trichostatin HDAC Inhibitor (Oncology)
Triedimycin A Antiviral 
Triedimycin B Antiviral 
Trienomycin Antitumour And Antibiotic (Oncology)
Trunkamide  Antitumor
T-Toxin Phytotoxin
Tubelactomicin Antibiotic - Tuberculosis
Tubulysin Tubulin (Oncology)
Tubulysin B Tubulin (Oncology)
Tunicamycin Antibacterial
Tylactone Antibiotic
Tylosin Antibacterial (Ribosome)
Tyrocidine Cell Membrane (Antibacterial)
Uk86956 Antiparasitic 
Ulithiacyclamide Cytotoxic
Undecylprodigiosin Antibacterial
Unphenelfamycin Antibiotic
Urdamycin A Antiosteoclastic/Osteporosis, G1 Phase Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase
Urukthapelstatin A  
Ushkulide A Immunosuppressant
Microbial Natural Products   Literature application and target / natural product mechanism of action 
Vacidin A Antibiotic
Validamycin Antifungal
Valinomycin Ionophore: Transport Of Potassium And As An Antibiotic
Vanchrobactin Siderophore
Vancomycin Antibiotic
Vancoresmycin Antibiotic
Venturamide A  
Venturamide B  
Venturicidin (Aabomycin) V-ATPase (Oncology)
Versipelostatin GRP78 Pathway 
Vibriobactin Siderophore
Vicenistatin Antibiotic
Vicibactin Siderophore
Viomycin Antibacterial (70S Ribosome)
Viranamycin A Antibiotic
Virginiamycin M1 Antibacterial
Virginiamycin S1 Inhibit Ribosome Assembly (60S Ribosomal Protein L37)
Virustomycin  Oncology (V-ATPase)
Vm 54339 Antibiotic
X 14885A Antibiotic
X-206 Ion Transporter
Xantholysin A Antimicrobial
Yersiniabactin Toxin
Ym 216391  
Yokonolide Auxin-Dependent Aux/IAA Degradation
Zearalenone Agonist Of The GPER (GPR30)
Zorbamycin Oncology
Zwittermicin Antibacterial (Membrane And Transcription)
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